Interested in securing your Linux server/desktop/whatever? Below are some things that I find to be very effective when you want a more secure environment. I will be targeting distros based on Debian, but the below sections currently apply best to Ubuntu server. So many other articles out there go over how to install and configure these tools so I will not be covering those aspects. Instead, I will focus on what I feel are good tools for different areas and will explain why I think they are useful, what they do, and why they should be considered.


One of the first things that I recommend you do is compile the set of patches provided by grsecurity into your kernel. This process may take a bit depending on how familiar you are with the steps required. There are many options for what you want to compile in, and there is usually more setup required once the system is running. If you are willing to put in the time for setting this up the benefits are very much worth it.

Why would I want to do this? While it's possible that the security measures put in place by these patches will break certain things in your system and you'll need to tweak some of the protections put in place for specific software (Java for example will need some extra configuration like disabling mprotect) there is a lot to be gained from grsecurity. For starters, the system's implementation of ASLR (address space layout randomization) is improved/hardened, additional checks for bounds and stack overflows are performed, chroot (commonly referred to as jails) is greatly hardened, and lots of other things. Ideally, these patches should help protect you against zero-days and other unknown and/or new exploits which is very valuable. You also gain more flexibility and modularity in targeting what areas of your system you want to harden (and how much you really want to do). Note that many more things are done other than the ones I've listed, and many of them require huge explanations to understand what it is they are doing underneath.

Host Intrusion Detection System

Tripwire is a great tool for this case. You should be able to find this package in the default repositories so you shouldn't need to compile the source and install it yourself. While there is a decent amount of setup and configuration after installation, it is definitely worth it. You can even set it up so that reports are emailed/aggregated/etc. to you however often you would like.

Why would I want to do this? Having a host intrusion detection system is a great way to monitor your system for compromises, attacks, infections, and a slew of other things. You will quickly be able to tell what files are getting touched, in what way, how they were touched, the severity of the operations, etc. Think about this: if someone were to compromise your system and try and escalate their privileges or extract sensitive information, you can generally assume that tools like this will pick up on these activities. That's not to say that there aren't ways of getting around these tools. A highly skilled individual/group will know of some things they can do without worrying about you coming to know about it. For example, if a piece of software is exploited remotely and in a certain way any intrusion detection system will struggle to pick this up. Additionally, if the system is compromised and the attacker has escalated their privileges there's nothing stopping them from silently modifying/corrupting/disabling your intrusion detection system. While it's harder for them to be able to modify your configuration/rules without knowing the password/key to do this, if you have a weak password/key it will be broken. If your password/key is strong and the attacker has administrator-level privileges, other measures can be taken. If your kernel is compromised I would say all bets are off!

Network Intrusion Detection System

Snort and Suricata are great tools for this purpose. Use Snort if you are only looking for intrusion detection, and use Suricata if you want intrusion prevention capabilities. Suricata can also function as an intrusion detection system without any intrusion prevention capabilities just like Snort. Personally I would use Suricata going forward as its performance is very good due to its multithreaded design. Suricata can use a lot of the rules that Snort uses so it's easier to switch from one to the other.

Why would I want to do this? These tools make it very easy to detect if you're the victim of a DoS or DDoS attack (at least until the traffic completely overloads your server rendering it unusable). Additionally, you can watch for things like remote exploits being sent over the wire, port scans, exploits being sent to Apache/NGINX, traffic being sent from malware on your network, etc. Honestly there are many use cases for these tools other than what I've listed, making them extremely helpful in aiding you on the network side of things.

Dynamic Malicious Activity Banning

Fail2ban is a tool that monitors various logs and dynamically bans IPs that are attempting to do malicious things. A few examples of this are too many failed authentication attempts, exploitation attempts, XSS attempts, etc. Ban times are configurable and actions can also be configured for when you want some event to take place when a malicious activity is being performed. This tool provides a bunch of standard filters for things like Apache, SSH, Postfix, NGINX, etc.

Why would I want to do this? This tool can be used in many ways. You can use it to dynamically ban people from banging on your SSH daemon (brute force attacks), or you could use it to send alerts for when attacks directed at your web applications are detected, or all of the above. It could be a really good way to reduce traffic to certain endpoints of your system based on your rules. To an extent, it could also be used to prevent a DoS attack from bringing your system to a halt. I say "to an extent" because a large enough DDoS attack will overwhelm this thing in a couple of seconds. It would probably be better off against DoS attacks from other machines on your LAN. Again, there are many ways to use this tool, and it supports many more filters than what I've listed above. It's also a good way to just be aware of what's going on with certain pieces of your system.

No Passwords

Everyone says this but I'll say it again here. Disable the use of passwords for a login mechanism with SSH. Use PKI (public/private keys) instead. Use a 4096-bit key. Don't allow logins with the root user.

Why would I want to do this? Keys are much stronger than any password you can probably easily remember. I also don't buy the argument that it's too computationally expensive to use 4096-bit keys. At the time of this writing (February 2016) we have hardware more than capable of handling crypto operations at high speed. Most CPUs have special instruction sets built into them now to further speed up the operations of encrypting and decrypting. Google, Microsoft, and other tech giants have TLS deployed EVERYWHERE and they have full write-ups on how the performance impact is next to none for them. I'm not saying TLS is the same as SSH authentication but you get the idea.


If you've got any web services running serve them over TLS. There is really no excuse anymore to not use TLS. Take Google's word for it.

Why would I want to do this? Anything sent over the network that's not encrypted can be easily intercepted and modified. If you think it's not easy to intercept or it will be a hassle for people to do it, know that it's extremely easy to do for a skilled attacker and it won't waste more than a minute or two of their time. Not utilizing TLS can have effects at the most basic level. Lets say you run a news site over plain HTTP. If I intercept and modify the articles that people are reading I can make them think your service is saying whatever I want it to say. If you think about it this could have wide-reaching effects depending on what I inject and how sensitive the subject is to your users.

Strong Ciphers is a great resource to find excellent choices for cipher suites. You'll see that they provide details for Apache, NGINX, the SSH daemon AND client, Lighttpd, HAProxy, Postfix, Exim, Dovecot, MySQL, PostgreSQL, and a few others. I think that many people overlook this step in hardening their systems. Qualys' SSL Server Test tool is a great way to check your configurations. Have a look at how well Amazon has configured themselves.

Why would I want to do this? If you're using weak crypto, what's the point? If you're using SSL 3, why bother? If you're using SSL 2, I bet your "secure" links between you and your clients have been broken and decrypted at some point. The whole reason for using secure protocols is because they're secure. Would you use Telnet over SSH? Why not make sure your secure protocols are actually secure and are configured as best as they can be? If you're not taking advantage of this then it's like you're using DES when you could be using AES.

Web Applications

If you're running any web applications on your machine that you or anyone you know developed, harden them. Look for SQL injection, XSS, CSRF, session fixation, code injection, command injection, and directory traversal vulnerabilities. Consider using ModSecurity if you're running Apache. If you don't have access to the source or aren't a developer this is where tools like Snort/Suricata, Fail2ban, and Tripwire really come in handy as they will help assist you with this task by just doing what they are made to do.

Why would I do this? Why would you not do this? If you could fix any of the vulnerabilities listed above it will greatly benefit you and your users. Some of the biggest attacks like the one against Sony that took place a few years ago was through blind SQL injection. If you don't think any of the above vulnerabilities are serious in any way, you could be in for a big surprise depending on how skilled the attacker is.


Everyone loves Docker these days. There are some other competing offerings coming out such as rkt but let's not talk about any of these. In general, regardless of what tool you decide to use that sits on top (if you decide to that is), run your applications in Linux containers if you can. Basically Linux containers are a very lightweight way to provide kernel-enforced virtualization. This means that all containers on your system will share the same kernel. While you do not get as much isolation as a full virtual machine due to the fact that LXC is provided by the kernel, you do get a lot of isolation in general. If an application is compromised but is running inside of a very limited container with minimal access to the system, you are in much better shape than if the application was compromised while running on the host.

Why would I do this? Using LXC means that your applications will have an additional layer of isolation. You can control how much a container should be isolated and even limit what it should be able to access on the host which makes them very flexible. Think of them as another way of jailing things like how chroot works except that you can control how much CPU and memory they can consume, and how much access they have to the networking stack, filesystem layer, and general OS capabilities (see Linux capabilities).


Consider scheduling scans using tools to look for rootkits, backdoors, and exploits. chkrootkit and rkhunter are a few good tools for this.

Why would I do this? These tools can sometimes help you figure out if a part of your system can be compromised. I wouldn't solely rely on these tools if you suspect you have a rootkit but they are definitely handy for finding binaries that have been replaced, suspicious OS and network modifications, and other things. If you have a rootkit, I wouldn't trust anything that comes back from your kernel into user space.